MeuSe QuäLen

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Sex and the City wird als Mini-Serie bei HBO Max fortgesetzt! Dich mit einer vielzahl qualitativ hochwertigen Milf, bevor die Stuten so richtig lufig werden, ob es nun Erfahrungen mit einer anderen Frau sind oder einem jngeren Mann. Welt treffen.

MeuSe QuäLen

Mäuse & Ratten sind lästig, hartnäckige und zählen zu unbeliebsamste Auf das Quälen und Töten von Nagetieren wird gänzlich verzichtet. Der Eourrier de la Meuse sagt: „Unsere Zweifel über die kriegerischen Absichten jeden Augenblik selbst an, und der Gedanke muß es sehr quälen. Welche. Simon quälen die Skrupel, Ellen beim Professor als Ghostwriterin zu verraten. Doch Simon ist immer wieder für eine Überraschung gut Britta ärgert sich über​.

Tierhaltung und Nachbarn

Wenn Sie Mäuse auf dem Dachboden entdecken, sollten Sie sofort die Lebendfalle sein, denn es gibt keinen Grund, Tiere zu quälen oder zu. Mäuse & Ratten sind lästig, hartnäckige und zählen zu unbeliebsamste Auf das Quälen und Töten von Nagetieren wird gänzlich verzichtet. harmjan >>plagen«,»quälen«, dazu harmida»Qual«usf. ; Hantes-Wiheries, s. daselbst auch Walinesheim; Wannehaye, Flurname, Kanton Etain, Meuse.

MeuSe QuäLen Informationen und Produkte zur Bekämpfung bei Mäusebefall Video

Mäuse quälen ist ok?! - Bakou

okeanosclubspa.com is a platform for academics to share research papers. An icon used to represent a menu that can be toggled by interacting with this icon. In der Côte-d’Or zwischen Autun und Dijon zweigt die Wasserscheide Atlantik – Ärmelkanal ab (47° 59′ 31″ N, 5° 55′ 37″ O), im Plateau de Langres zwischen Marne (Fluss) (über Seine zum Kanal), Meuse (Maas) und den Quellen der Saône (zur Rhône) die Scheide zwischen Kanal und Nordsee (47° 51′ 11″ N, 5° 45′ Giftgas und Salpeter - Düsseldorfer Dokumenten Giftgas und Salpeter Chemische Industrie, Naturwissenschaft und Militär von bis zum ersten Munitionsprogramm /15 Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines Doktors der Philosophie (Dr. Phil.) durch die Philosophische Fakultät der Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf Im März vorgelegt von Timo Baumann. okeanosclubspa.com 2, likes · 1 talking about this. okeanosclubspa.com - Technik mit Leidenschaft okeanosclubspa.com A post shared by peacefulpetss on Nov 22, at pm PST. Nagetiere sind stepfather sex tube, wo man sie am allerwenigsten gebrauchen könnte. HINWEIS: Sie nutzen einen unsicheren und veralteten Browser!
MeuSe QuäLen „Rundreise Düsseldorf, Rhein, Mosel/Moselle, Metz, Nancy, Champagne/Ardennen-Meuse, Verdun, Sedan, Charleville-Meziers, Liege, Maas, Maastricht, Roermond, Nijmegen. 4/17/ · ENDUROWANDERN IN LOTHRINGEN / Samstag, / 3. Tourtag – Es regnet schon seit Stunden – und so wie es aussieht, wird es so schnell auch nicht aufhöokeanosclubspa.com ist es kalt geworden. Gerade einmal 5 Grad plus zeigt das Thermometer. Keine guten Voraussetzungen für eine Endurowanderung. An icon used to represent a menu that can be toggled by interacting with this icon.

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From a portrait by Van Dyck. CARRUTH, Ph. PREFACE As the first of the dramas in Schiller's later period, Wallenstein is the key to a füll appreciation of the others ; to every Student of the Drama, it presents, as it did to Schiller, most interesting pröblems in prac- tical criticism ; to the lover of pure literature, it is a perennial treasury of brilliant scenes, powerful por- traits, and noble thoughts.

This edition is prepared in the belief that the work needs a more helpful and more attractive treatment than it has hitherto received.

As it will be read chiefly in College classes, the purpose has been to minimize the proportion of translation and grammati- cal notes, and to give as much as feasible for the lit- erary and historical appreciation of the drama.

The List of Persons, with its index of appearances and references, will be found a convenience for com- parison and criticism. The Introduction endeavors to present the material most needf ul.

The editor subjoins a brief list of authorities for those who wish to make a more careful study. Most of them he has himself used, and here makes acknowl- edgment of his indebtedness.

He is also under Ob- ligation to Professor H. Brandt, of Hamilton College, for many helpful criticisms. University of Kansas, March, HiSTORY : Gardiner, The Thirty Years' War.

Murr, Beyträge zur Geschichte des 30jährigen Krieges, Herchenhahn, Geschichte Albrechts von Wallenstein, Schiller, Geschichte des 30jährigen Krieges.

Förster, Biographie Wallensteins, Ranke, Geschichte Wallensteins, Hall wich, Wallensteins Ende, Gindely, Geschichte des 30jährigen Krieges English translation, Putnams, Gädeke, Wallensteins Verhandlungen mit den Schweden und Sachsen, Kugler, Wallenstein in Neuer Plutarch , Schillers Briefwechsel mit Körner ed.

Gödeke , Schiller im Urteile seiner Zeitgenossen Schmidt , Palleske, Schillers Leben und Werke iith ed.

Boyesen, Goethe and Schiller, Auflage, Buchheim, Wallenstein, Parts I and H, Cotterill, Wallensteins Lager, Hart, Die Piccolomini, Translations : Martin, Wallensteins Lager in Blackwood's Edinburg Magazine, Feb.

Coleridge, Die Piccolomini and Wallensteins Tod in Bohn Library. The plot of the tragedy is developed in Piccolomini and Tod, The scene is laid in the Thirty Years' War, and the prototype of the hero is a personage of the first importance in that struggle.

Throughout, Schiller has followed history so closely " an anxious endeavor to keep close to my object, " is his own phrase that some familiarity with the principal occurrences in the war and some means of comparing the fictitious with the real Wallenstein are needed for a critical apprecia- tion of the dramas.

After these topics are disposed of, 5 the genesis of the trilogy, 6 its characteristics as a tragedy, and 7 its metrical structure, are briefly treated.

L— THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR. The Thirty Years' War was the arbitrament by battle of the disputes arising out of the Reformation in Ger- many, aggravated by the territorial and dynastic compli- cations inseparable from the Constitution of the empire.

From Albrecht IL to Francis IL deposed , this monarch was chosen from the princes of the house of Hapsburg, whose Chief hereditary estates were Austria, Tirol and Styria.

At the beginn ing of the Thirty Years' War, the electors were the princes of Bohemia, Saxony, Brandenburg, the Palatinate, Trier, Mainz and Cologne.

On the death of the father there was thus a monarch even before the son's confirmation and coronation as emperor.

The emperor with the ' approval of the Diet assumed the right to transfer the electoral privilege, as in the case of the Prince Palatine Frederick and Maxi- milian of Bavaria.

The Constitution of this empire was based on force, tradition, and, beginning with the Golden Bull , on written Conventions Wahkapi" tulatwnen y between nobles and emperor.

In , there were over petty states in the empire. In most of these states diverse laws of inheritance pre- vailed, giving rise to continued subdivision of territory, while intermarriage entangled Claims beyond the power of anything but war to solve.

The princes were equals within their rank. The Emperor, as archduke of Aus- tria or King of Hungary, was confined to these terri- tories as much as any other prince to his own, and was not superior to a score of princes, archdukes and arch- bishops.

The Emperor, as such, was a monarch with- out a country. His relations to the princes of the Empire, as well as those of the princes among them- selves, were unsettled, and depended largely on force.

The Diet consisted of three " Colleges " : the electors, the other princes, and the cities, but the electors, who met apart, and sometimes without the other estates, usually dominated the body.

It met only at the call of the Emperor. Owing partly to the Emperor's protracted absence from Germany, and to the reformer's pacific attitude in political matters, the great religious revolution of the Reformation was accompanied by comparatively little bloodshed while Luther lived.

Whether princes who changed their religion af ter that might f urther secularize church property was left undetermined ; but any eccle- siastical dignitary of the empire, whether elector, abbot or bishop, who should become a Protestant, should for- feit his benefices and titles.

His successor in Austria was his brother, Ferdi' nand L , who had been elected King of Hungary in , and acquired the crown of Bohemia by marriage.

He was succeeded in tum by his son Maximilian II, i , and his grandson Rudolf IL Rudolf becoming imbecile was succeeded by his brother Mathias , who had been made Regent for Austria, Hungary and Moravia in Ma- thias was foUowed by his nephew Ferdinand II, who had been chosen King of Bohemia in 7, and of Hungary in Ferdinand III.

After the Peace of Augsburg Protestantism continued to grow, and the Protestant princes mterpreted in their own favor the indefinite terms of the Peace, and found means to evade the Ecclesiastical Reservation.

The resulting jealousies, together with the growth of the Society of Jesus, gave the Catholics the practical ascendency, and at the opening of the lyth Century the Catholic princes re- solved upon a struggle to restore at least the Status of For thirty years Germany was the seat of a war which so utterly devastated her territories that two centuries elapsed before she could regain her rightful place among the nations of Europe.

To secure the succession in advance to his brother Mathias, Emperor Rudolph II. The election had been granted in return for a royal charter Majestätsbrief guaranteeing the religious freedom of the country.

In 16 17 Mathias, being without direct heirs, was anxious to secure the succession to his nephew, Ferdinand of Styria, soon afterwards Emperor, and called the Estates to accept the latter as king.

He was otherwise a mild- mannered and conciliatory man, fond of pleasure es- pecially of hunting, to which he devoted two or three days every week , without executive faculty, guided by those about him, by none more than his confessor, Father Lamormain.

He had already imposed Catholi- cism on the inhabitants of his duchy of Styria, and now the efforts of his fanatical zeal in Bohemia let loose the fierce religious passions of Germany, which he was entirely unable to control, and which finally subsided only from sheer exhaustion.

The Virtual leader of the Catholics, however, was Maximilian of Bavaria, who, with little less than Ferdi- nand's zeal, united great ability as a statesman and general.

Frederick, Elector of the Palatinate, son-in-law of James I. The Protestant cities and principalities of Southern Germany, which, it will be recalled, were mainly Cal- vinistic in creed, had formed, in , an alliance known as the " Protestant Union," and the Catholics united , under the lead of Bavaria, in the " Cath- olic League.

After Ferdi- nand's election as Emperor, he appointed a commission of regency while he should be absent from Bohemia, and Catholic aggressions became more frequent.

The Protestants called a Diet to consider the Situation, and the Emperor forbade a second session of it. But this had already been called for May 21, Led by Count Thurn, the Protestant Estates visited the Re- gents in the Castle, at Prague, May 23rd, and demanded to know whether they were responsible for the imperial Orders against the assembly of the Diet.

The Bohemians proceeded to repudiate Ferdinand, and chose the incapable Fred- erick, Elector of the Palatinate, to be their king.

But indecision and disagreement on the part of the Bo- hemian generals, Thurn and Mansfeld, sacrificed all their early advantages, and in a little more than two years Nov.

Frederick, who had entered his capital only a year before, fled now in the face of danger, to be deprived of his original rank and possessions, to spend the remainder of his days a fugitive and a suppliant, and to go into history under the title of "The Winter King," a perpetual memorial of his brief and inglorious reign.

The armyof the League, under Tilly, Maximilian's general, drove the Protestant forces from Bohemia, and then from the Palatinate, Frederick's hereditary dominion.

This ended the first stage of the war. The Catholic party was everywhere victorious. The Bohemian Revolu- tion was suppressed and the rieh Palatinate lay at the Emperor's mercy.

A second stage of the war now opens with the intervention of Den mark. There were various attempts to bring to bear upon the conflict in Germany a coalition of the Protestant powers, which included England, Holland, Denmark and Sweden.

In these attempts resulted in the active intervention of Christian IV. The Emperor became convinced of the necessity of provid- ing a better army than Tilly's and accepted the magnif- icent offer of Wallenstein, Prince of Friedland, to equip 20, men at his own expense and to maintain them in the field without Charge upon the Emperor's treas- ury.

Wallenstein now becomes the central figure of the struggle. He was born at Hermanitz, in Bohemia, in the year His parents were Lutherans, and for a time he was under the Instruction of the Bohemian Brothers.

At about the age of eighteen he spent some time at the University of Altdorf, near Nuremberg, and then traveled in west- ern Europe in Company with a friend of Kepler.

Gindely has adopted this, and other historians will probably follow him. In connection with literature, however, it will certainly remain justi- fiab!

After a campaign against the Turks he obtained a position at the Austrian court. His Sponsor wrote that Wallenstein was eager to serve the Archduke, " both from particular liking for him, and in Order to have a master whose rank and power might serve as a stepping-stone for his own advancement.

In , in recognition of his Services against the Vene- tians, he was elevated to the nobility. Soon after, he married Isabella Katharina, daughter of Count Har- rach, who became second in esteem of the councilors of the future Emperor Ferdinand II.

A brother of Wallenstein's wife, was son-in-law to Baron af terwards Prince Eggenberg, the chief of Ferdinand's advisers.

At the outbreak of the Bohemian Revolution, Wal- lenstein had recruited a regiment of Walloons for the Emperor's Service, and once at least had distinguished himself in command.

The victories of the Austrian arms had been followed by numerous executions, confis- cations and expatriations among the Bohemian aristoc- racy, and, like other friends of the court, he had used the opportunity to acquire, at ridiculously low prices, the estates thus thrown upon the market.

By this and other means he had been enabled to bring to the title of Prince of Friedland, conferred upon him in , a large and well-nigh continuous territory in northem Bohemia.

It was, furthermore, his enormous wealth that made possible his proffer of a formidable army f ully equipped for service against the threatened Prot- estant coalition.

At first, he was made " Capo d' Armada ; " then, as it became evident that his advancement to command over men of higher rank would give rise to jealousy, he was created Duke of Friedland, and soon afterwards July 25th appointed generalissimo General-Oberst-Feldhauptmann.

In the autumn of , within three months of the date of his first commission, his army, fuUy equipped, 20, strong and growing like a rolling snowball, set out for the seat of war in North Germany, where lay the army of the League under Tilly, with whom he was to co-op- erate.

But before any important action resulted, the season was over and Wallenstein went into winter quarters. Throughout the winter peace negotiations were car- ried on ; but Wallenstein took care to fortify his Posi- tion at Dessau.

Here, in the spring of , he was attacked by Mansfeld, the Palatine's general, who greatly under-estimated the strength of Wallenstein's army, now swoUen to more than 30, Mutual jealousy kept Wallenstein and Tilly from profiting by this victory.

Mansfeld escaped, and, getting together what forces he could, retreated through Silesia and Moravia into Hungary. Wallenstein, leaving part of his army to aid Tilly, pursued Mansfeld, who was carrying the war into the Emperor's own lands.

He drove Mansfeld out of Hungary, and the latter died on his way to Venice. This was the sum of the military achievements of the year. During this campaign, Tilly and Maximilian of Ba- varia were tireless in their complaints to the Emperor, of the insolence, the intractability, the high-handed tyranny of Wallenstein, and in demands for his removal.

These complaints came to Wallen stein's ears, and he wrote bitterly, asking his dismissal : " Quite otherwise have I deserved of the Emperor and the house of Aus- tria, but I will not exaggerate my merits ; this is my only comfort — that no man can say that I have not always served my Emperor faithfully, honorably, and helpfully, and if I had served God so well, I should be the Chief saint in Heaven.

There was no other general who was regarded with the same esteem, and besides, the Emperor was heavily in debt to him for contributions to the expenses of the war, far beyond his original offer.

By the efforts of Eggenberg, Wal- lenstein was prevailed upon to remain in command, the Emperor expressing confidence in him by exten ding his Privileges as Duke of Friedland.

In the campaign of , Wallenstein defeated the remainder of Mansfeld's army in Silesia, and then, re- turning to North Germany, joined Tilly, and with scarcely a serious engagement reduced the entire Dan- ish peninsula.

As reward for his victories in Silesia, Wallenstein received outright the Duchy of Sagan in that province, and, for the conquest of Denmark, the Duchy of Mecklenburg was given him in pawn.

XV unable to meet, the Emperor confirmed Wallenstein in the possession of the Duchy of Mecklenburg, thus mak- ing him an hereditary prince of the Empire, and the equal of the dukes of Saxony and Bavaria.

The winter of was spent in negotiations with the Hanse eitles to secure to Spain a foothold on the Baltic from which to operate against the Netherlands.

But negotiations failed, and in the spring the imperial army besieged Stralsund, one of the Hanse towns and heretofore regarded as neutral territory.

This city, re- inforced from the sea-side by Danish troops and, after the conclusion of an alliance between Sweden and Den- mark, by Swedish troops also, made stout resistance and compelled Wallenstein to raise the siege.

Mean- time, at the instance of Ferdinand, Wallenstein offered a separate peace to Christian IV. The following winter and spring were occupied with negotiations which ended, in May, , in the Peace of Lübeck, which permanently eliminated Denmark from the conflict The Victors generously restored to Christian the whole of the peninsula on condition that thencef orth he should not interfere in Germ an affairs.

Almost unbroken suc- cess had attended the Catholic arms since the battle of White Hill, and anxiety over the dangerous ambi- tions which naturally grew out of such success became general in the courts of Europe, not even France ex- cepted.

This was the Edict of Restitution. It was a decree restoring to the original Catholic holders, or to their successors, all church property and benefices which had gone over into Protestant hands since the Treaty of Passau and the Peace of Augsburg This edict, while tolerating the Lutheran church, plainly meant the extinction of Calvinism.

It is unnecessary to characterize the recklessness, from a political point of view, of such an undertaking; but Ferdinand appointed commissioners who proceeded to its immediate execution.

In the fall of the Emperor had announced his Intention of calling the electors together the follow- ing year to designate his son, Ferdinand, King of Hungary, as his successor in the Empire.

In spite of this unfavorable attitude of the princes, the Emperor proceeded with the Diet, which met at Ratisbon in July, The Emperor asked to have the Estates pay the great war debt which kept him in bonds to Wallenstein ; to have regulations made for the enlisting and quartering of the army ; to have the Dutch expelled from the Empire ; to have the Mantuan succession settled ; and to have some final action taken in the case of the Pala- tine.

He did not at first refer to his desire to have his son elected King of Germany. The electors, led by Maximilian of Bavaria, replied with counter demands, Chief of which was the removal of Wallenstein.

And he had dismissed the only man who enabled him to hold his own in the face of the League. Two of the firmest supporters of the Eggenberg party at court, Werdenberg and Questenberg, were deputed to take to Wallenstein the demand for his resignation.

Contrary to all expectations, they were kindly received, and their awkward message heard with calmness — al- most indifference. I am sorry that his majesty did not stand up for me, but I submit.

Tilly, who when first approached excused himself on the ground of infirmity, finally accepted the command. It would have been well for him had he persisted in his refusal.

Gustavus Adolphus, the warlike King of Sweden, had watched with growing uneasiness the struggle in Germany. Before the Intervention of Denmark he had offered to assume the active leadership of the Protes- tant coalition then attempted.

Later he had sent assistance to Stralsund. At length, in , moved by the utter prostration of his fellow Protestants in Germany, and apprehensive of the seemingly bound- less ambition of the Emperor and his victorious general, he landed with an army of 12, Swedes on the coast of Pomerania.

The following was a mem- orable year. Tilly, who was sent to oppose Gustavus, captured and sacked the town of New Brandenburg, and Gustavus retorted upon Frankfurt on the Oder.

Tilly then besieged Magdeburg. Gustavus was unable to go to the rescue, and this Protestant stronghold feil into Tilly's hands. The work of fire and sword which followed made the sack of Magdeburg a word of terror, even among men hardened to such scenes.

Of its 35, inhabitants, barely 5, crept forth alive. Though the war dragged miser- ably on for seventeen years, Ferdinand's efforts were doomed to ultimate failure from this moment.

The immediate effect of the victory was to strengthen the resolution pf many half-hearted friends of the Protes- tant cause.

Joined now by the Lutheran Elector of Brandenburg, John George of Saxony, and Bernhard of Weimar, and supported by subsidies from France, Gustavus seemed in a position to complete the over- throw of Austria.

While the Swedish king passed into southwestern Germany, taking Würzburg, Frankfurt on the Main and Mainz and going into winter-quarters on the Rhine, the Saxons occupied Bohemia, but did not press their advantage by invading Austria.

Negotiations for peace during the winter of proved of no avail. Saxony held to Sweden, and it was evident that the war must be resumed the follow- ing summer.

But confidence in Tilly was destroyed. What was to be done? But none of the candidates were peculiarly fit, and so the court thought to appoint Ferdinand of Hungary, for whose succession to the empire such sacrifices had been made.

This might have been carried out ; but after Breitenfeld the question was, How was he to get an army? There was but one answer to this question.

All eyestumed to Wallenstein. A few weeks later, Eggen- berg wrote on behalf of the Emperor in humble terms, asking an interview. The two men met at Znaim in December, but Wallenst-ein refused to accept the Office of general field-marshal to the King of Hungary, though the Emperor promised that the King " would always give great weight to the generalis counsel," and that Father Lamormain and other priests should not be allowed " to traduce and cross the general.

The offer was gladly accepted, and immediately the call went forth for recruits. The response was more ready, and the results more imposing than in His name, his generosity, and his ability were known.

Many of his old officers had gone into retirement with him, and now re-enlisted. Before the first of April he had an army of between 40, and 50, men.

Before the expiration of the three months, Eggenberg wrote to Wallenstein how well pleased the court was with his success, and expressed the hope that he would not think of laying down the command.

But he insisted on doing so, and messengers such as Wer- denberg and Quirogä were unable to move him.

Mean- while the spring campaign opened, Gustavus began his march eastward, and Bavaria and Austria trembled. Tilly met the invader near Rain on the Lech with such forces as could be collected, and tried to prevent his passage.

But the Swede was again victorious and Tilly received his death-wound, April i5th. Xxi near Znaim, and persuaded him, in the face of the panic following Tilly's defeat, to accept the command.

The terms were extraordinarily favorable to Wallen- stein and humiliating to the Emperor. As best they can be determined from memoranda and indirect evidence, Wallenstein was to have undivided com- mand; the Emperor himself might not issue Orders directly to the army or to any officer save through the Commander ; Wallenstein was to have the right of con- fiscation, as well as of levying contributions ; he was authorized to carry on negotiations for the Emperor with the Electors of Saxony and Brandenburg, and to suspend where he saw fit the Edict of Restitution ; he had füll authority ii?

A considerable force which had been sent to Italy in to take part in the war of the Mantuan Succession, with such officers as Gallas, Piccolomini and Altring- er, returned just in time to join the new army.

Wallen- stein quickly drove the Saxons out of Bohemia. At Eger he received command over the army of the Catholic League, and immediately marched against the Swed- ish king.

But Gustavus was ill-prepared for battle, and proceeded to entrench himself near Nuremberg. To the surprise of many, Wallenstein did not attack his antagonist's position, but established a camp at Fürth, a few miles away, fortified it strongly, and sat down to watch him.

Here the two armies remained for nine weeks, Gustavus in the meantime receiving con- siderable re-enforcements.

Wallenstein was wise enough to recognize the disadvantage under which he, with his heavy phalanxes, would labor in the open field, and he could afford to wait Gustavus was just now playing the röle of the invincible, and every week which he let pass without attacking, he was losing more in reputation than Wallenstein.

On the other hand, of course, Wallenstein's enemies at Vienna charged him with cowardice, and it certainly would have been more heroic and more picturesque if he had immediately thrown himself upon the Swedish king, and the direct as well as the moral effect of a sweep- ing victory in July, , would have been great, prob- ably decisive of the whole war.

On the 3rd of September, the Swedish king, no longer able to endure inaction, attacked Wallenstein's Position in füll force, but after a desperate contest was repulsed with great losses.

Gustavus withdrew into Bavaria, making a movement toward Austria, but Wallenstein, instead of pursuing him, started for Saxony, intending to punish the Elector and force him to seek alliance with the Emperor.

Leipzig feil into his hands. Then Gustavus, yielding to the appeals of his ally and anxious lest he himself be cut off from home, retumed to meet his enemy.

He attacked Wallenstein's position at Lützen on the i6th of November. The battle was JNTRÖDÜCTIÖN. Had it not been for the timely arrival of Pappenheim, who was recalled in haste from Halle, whither he had been detached, the result would have been disastrous for the Imperialists.

As it was, though the Swedish king was killed. Wallen- stein lost Pappenheim and his army was driven from the field. In this battle Octavio Piccolomini distin- guished himself for bravery, and was promoted.

After the death of Gustavus, the guidance of the cause of Sweden devolved upon the Chancellor Axel Oxen- stjerna, a shrewd and successful diplomat, in sympathy with the King's purposes, but lacking his military gifts.

Wallenstein withdrew his shattered army into Bo- hemia to spend the winter in recniiting and in ne- gotiating with both Swedes and Saxons. In every Austrian principality recruiting-stations were set up, and even conscriptions enforced.

At the same time the most extensive Orders for equipment had to be given and their fulfillment assured.

For this Wallen- stein used his own means without stint and was aided by subsidies from Spain. But this was not now enough, and the Emperor's crown-lands had to be laid under contribution.

Every care was taken for the dis- cipline of veterans as well as recruits. This winter was also a period of ceaseless correspond- ence in endeavors for peace.

He was ready, he said, to resign any of bis pretensions in order not to hinder the great work. He continued bis attempts to come to terms witb Saxony, bis messenger being bis brotber-in-law, Count Adam Terzky, and even tbe court began to entertain bopes of a peace-convention.

But circumstances were unfavor- able. Austria was not sufficiently convinced of tbe extremity of tbe case to make tbe concessions regarding religious freedom tbat were expected; tbe Protestant States bad risked too mucb to be satisfied witb com- promises ; and tbe Swedes were determined not to go out of Germany witbout territorial compensation for tbeir acbievements.

Wbile Wallenstein was negotiating witb Saxony, and perbaps directly witb tbe Swedes, persons were negotiating in bis name tbougb it can- not be sbown witb bis knpwledge witb France, suggest- ing tbat be migbt find recompense in tbe crown of Bobemia for tbe loss of Mecklenburg, wbicb bad been promised bim by tbe Emperor.

In May, , tbe Imperial army moved into Silesia, wbere lay tbe com- bined forces of Saxony and Brandenburg. But instead of using bis superior force.

Wallenstein spent tbe entire summer in negotiations, trying to detacb tbe two Electors from Sweden and to establisb an independent peace between tbem and tbe Emperor.

During tbe latter part of tbe summer Maximilian of Bavaria, wbo now commanded tbe army of tbe Catbolic League, began to cbafe under Wallenstein's absolute control of affairs, and asked tbe Emperor to place Altringer under bis Maximilian's orders.

But tbe INTRODUCl'ION. XXV Emperor had renounced control over the ärmy, and so in this, as well as in the matter of an escort requested by Spain for the Cardinal-Infante, the new Governor- Oeneral, on his way to the Netherlands, he was obliged to come as a petitioner to his general.

Wallenstein sent fair promises to the Emperor, but to Altringer strict Orders to abide by his previous Instructions. The Emperor now took the first step toward a breach with his general by sending to Altringer direct orders to obey the Elector of Bavaria.

The negotiations for peace with Saxony and Branden- burg came to naught, and Wallenstein found the sea- son nearly over, without results. There were not wanting those who attributed his inaction to fear and incapacity, and an opportunity of saving his reputation now offered itself.

Arnim had left facing Wallenstein a force of Brandenburgers and Swedes with some Saxons ander Count Thurn and General Dubald. This army Wallenstein surrounded at Steinau and forced to surrender on the i ith of October, and followed up his victory with a march of rapid and easy conquest even to Berlin.

The soldiers of the captured army were drafted into the Imperial Service, and the surrender of the still unconquered part of Silesia was secured in exchange for the release of the officers, including Count Thurn.

The release of Thurn was displeasing to the court, though the unexpected victories caused great rejoicing in Vienna.

After his series of victories. Wallenstein resumed negotiations for peace with the Saxons and Brandenburgers. As Bernhard moved toward the northeast, the Elector of Bavariawas filled with fear that the campaign was directed against his country, and appealed to the Emperor for defense.

The Emperor was impressed with the reality of the danger, and dispatched messen- ger after messenger to Wallenstein summoning him to the aid of the Elector.

But Wallenstein believed, or affected to believe, that Bernhard was aiming at Bohemia, as had indeed been the usual course of the Protestant attack.

It was a fatal mistake. Bernhard marched into Bavaria scarcely resisted, and on the i5th of November, Ratisbon, the " bulwark of Bavaria," feil into his hands.

Too late Wallen stein recognized his own error. He hastened through Bohemia into Ba- varia, but finding that he had not sufficient forces and munitions to assume the offensive, retired from a battle offered at Cham and went into winter-quarters in Bohemia.

Maximilian Kas astounded, and appealed again to the Emperor. Finde ich persönlich toll. Eine Erfahrung, die wir bei unserer Tour immer wieder machen: Die Infrastuktur ist mehr als dürftig.

Wenn, hat die Gastronomie nur über Mittag und am Abend auf, es gibt viel Leerstand und reichlich Verfall. Und doch hat das Motorrad fahren in Lothringen durchaus seinen Reiz.

Etwa wenn die Wege so verschlammt sind, dass sich die Motorräder festfahren. Oder wenn ein dicker Baum den Weg blockiert.

Am späten Nachmittag treffen wir alle wieder im Hotel ein. Der muss beim Einfedern Kontakt mit dem Hinterrad bekommen haben. Lässt sich alles wieder richten — wir sind mit uns und dem Geleisteten zufrieden.

Eigentlich hätte uns auch der Pizza-Automat in der Stadtmitte gereizt, der rund um die Uhr und an sieben Tagen die Woche auf dem Holzfeuer gebackene Pizzen offeriert.

Einen Versuch wäre es wert gewesen, allein, um mitreden zu können. Dann aber haben wir uns doch für den Restaurantbesuch entschieden.

Ländliche Idylle pur, die einen erholsamen Schlaf verspricht. Den werden wir brauchen, denn auch am morgigen Samstag wollen wir noch einmal zu einer Endurowanderung rund um Dun-sur-Meuse aufbrechen.

Jörg hat den Routenverlauf in einem kleinen Video zusammengefasst. Das wollen wir Euch zum Abschluss nicht vorenthalten.

Cafe du port 26 Rue du Port Stenay Tel. Les Colimencarts 15 rue Sainte-Margueritte Dun-sur-Meuse Tel. Tourtag — Wir haben Glück mit dem Wetter — wieder einmal.

Statt der angekündigten ergiebigen Regenschauer ist es heute morgen nur ein wenig diesig und auch die Temperaturen sind noch angenehm. Der Tag beginnt zudem mit einem für französische Verhältnisse ausgesprochen reichhaltigem Frühstück — Käse, Wurst, Eier, Müsli, Marmelade, alles da.

Heute wollen wir das Roadbook 1 abfahren. Die Strecke wird uns, auf vielen Nebenwegen, bis nach Verdun führen.

Gut Kilometer kommen so zusammen, eine stolze Leistung auf überwiegend unbefestigten Wegen — wenn wir denn alles fahren.

Spätestens in Verdun werden wir einen Tankstopp einlegen müssen. Die KTM Freeride von Dieter hat, ebenso wie meine Beta Alp , gerade einmal 6 Liter Tankinhalt.

Da dürfte es spätestens bei Kilometern Distanz eng werden. Vorsichtshalber haben wir beide noch einen kleinen Reservekanister dabei ….

Schon die ersten Kilometer des heutigen Tages sind vielversprechend: kleine Waldwege wechseln sich ab mit schmalen Wiesenpfaden, breite Schottenspuren mit Trialpfaden, die den eigentlichen Weg kaum erkennen lassen.

Gelegentlich gilt es einen abgebrochenen Ast zu überwinden, immer wieder gibt es morastige Stellen, die sich nur selten umfahren lassen.

Alles ganz nach unserem Geschmack. Beim Druck auf den Anlasser tut sich nichts. Sollte die Batterie schlagartig den Dienst versagt haben?

Tacho und Blinker funktionieren noch — wir sind ein wenig ratlos. Also geht es wieder ab durchs Unterholz, auf teilweise abenteuerlichen und für uns manchmal anspruchsvollen Wegen.

Ein breiter Boxer oder eine schwere Africa Twin hätten stellenweise keine Chance gehabt. Gut, dass wir die kleinen Enduros mitgenommen haben.

Kreuz und quer geht es durchs Gelände, bis wir an einem imposanten Memorial eine erste Verschnaufpause einlegen. Gegen Mittag erreichen wir dann Verdun.

Gut Kilometer stehen auf der Uhr. Also wird erst einmal eine Tankstelle gesucht. Die ist offen und es kann bar — und nicht am Automaten — bezahlt werden.

Nach dem Tanken gönnen wir uns endlich eine Kaffeepause. Auf der gesamten Strecke gab es gleich zu Beginn nur eine einzige Möglichkeit mal einzukehren.

Essen wollten wir eigentlich nicht. An einer der Festungsruinen, die rund um Verdun liegen, legen wir kurz darauf einen Fotostopp ein.

Das Gelände ist mittlerweile militärisches Sperrgebiet, die Tore zur Festung selbst sind fest verschlossen. Ein paar Schnappschüsse gelingen uns aber.

Man mag sich nicht vorstellen, wie es hier im 1. Weltkrieg zuging …. So langsam treten wir den Rückweg an.

Es bleibt weiterhin trocken, obwohl doch die Wettervorhersage für den Nachmittag Regenschauer rund um Verdun angekündigt hatte.

Meist sind wir wieder auf unbefestigten Wegen unterwegs. Within a month the ferocious execution of this order began. The leaders were imprisoned, while the poor fled for safety over dark mountain passes, seeking a land of liberty.

King Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia invited the exiles to settle in his kingdom. When the protests of the Protestant princes proved powerless, active measures of reprisal began.

King Friedrich Wilhelm took the most energetic measures to secure the protection of these martyrs of faith, and announced that hereafter he should regard the Salzburgers as his own subjects.

England sent an eloquent and noble remonstrance to the Emperor. Finally, when the Protestant princes had signed a Joint note, declaring that they would unite to secure protection for Citizens of the same faith, the Archbishop was induced by the Emperor to moderate his terms.

Before the end of April, , fourteen thousand of the best and most industrious Citizens of the country had sought safety by flight.

Such is my appellation, I'm driven from my native home For God's word and salvation. About twenty thousand are said to have settled in Prussia, mostly in Lithuania, twelve hundred miles from their former home.

Others established them- selves in Würtemberg, in the Netherlands, in Bruns- wick, and even in England. About six hundred re- moved to Georgia in the United States, of whose settlement and life in this country very interesting annals have been published.

Goethe met with an incident in the wandering of these exiles which is contained in a pamphlet pub- lished in , "Das liebthätige Gera gegen die Salz- burgischen Emigranten.

Das ist: kurze und wahr- haftige Erzählung, wie dieselben in der Gräflich Reuss-Plauischen Residenz- Stadt angekommen, aufge- nommen und versorget, auch was an und von vielen derselben Gutes gesehen und gehöret worden.

This is a Short and true narrative of how they arrived in the capital of the county of Reuss-Plauen, were received and provided for, also what good was seen and heard in the case of, and by many of them.

In the Com- prehensive History of the Emigrants, or exiled Lu- therans from the Archbishopric of Sahburg , this Story is published under the heading, "Wonderful Marriage.

The original narrative reads as follows: — "In Altmühl, a town in the district of Oettingen, a worthy and well-to-do Citizen had a son, whom he had often urged but had never been able to induce to marry.

When the Salzburg emigrants came to pass through this little town, there was among them a maiden to whom the youth took a fancy; at the same time he formed the resolution in bis heart to marry her, if possible.

He therefore went and sought information from the other Salzburgers as to the maiden's conduct and family, and learned that she was the child of good, honest people, and had always conducted herseif very well, but had separated from her parents on account of religion and left them behind.

Thereupon this youth went to bis father and informed bim that, as he had so often urged bim to marry, he had now chosen a maiden, if his father would allow bim to have her.

And when bis father wanted to know who she was, he told bim that she was a Salzburg maiden, and that he liked her, and if he would not let bim have her he would never marry.

The father was startled at this, and attempted to dissuade bim from it. He also called in some of his friends and a pastor, in order, possibly by their intervention, to bring his son to a different mode of tbinking, but all in vain.

He went straightway to his Salzburg maiden, and asked her how she liked it here in this land. Upon this the son took her with him, and presented her to his father.

He asked the maiden whether she liked his son and would marry him. She, however, not knowing anything of this matter, im- agined that he was trying to tease her, and answered that he should not make f un of her ; his son had wished to hire a servant for his father; and if he desired her, she purposed to serve him faithfully and to earn well her bread.

When he, thereupon, handed to her a gift of betrothal, she put her band in her bosom and Said that she must also give to him a wedding por- tion.

Whereupon she gave him a little purse, in which there were two hundred ducats. The fact was not generally recognized, and it remained for a writer in the Morgenblatt of to point to this incident as the source of Goethe's poem.

The scene is no longer one of religious per- secution and the heroism of faith, but of patriotism, and of suffering nobly borne, and constituting a uni- versal appeal.

The subject of the poem was trans- ferred to existing political events associated with the conflicts between France and Germany, which followed the French Revolution.

The Campaign in France. Pnissia and Austria had united in a treaty, the pur- pose of which was to preserve the cities of Germany from the French revolutionary movement beyond the Rhine.

With this object in view, two armies were assembled, one for the occupation of Elsass, and the other for an advance upon Paris by way of Belgium.

The royal princes of France had fled to the Rhine after the Revolution of , whither they were followed by loyal nobles and their adherents.

These bore the name of "the emigrants," emigrSs. The allied army, under the com- mand of the Duke of Brunswick, who had been dis- tinguished in the wars of Frederick the Great but was unequal to the demands of more modern warfare, ad- vanced against Paris.

Under a skilful and energetic leader victory would have been assured, and the enterprise crowned with success by the cap- ture of the French capitol.

Hesitation, and conflicting counsels when an advance was possible, caused an abandonment of the enterprise. The Duke Karl August of Weimar, the friend of Goethe, commanded a regi- ment in this campaign.

In his Campagne in Frankreich Goethe published a personal record of his experiences with the army during the six weeks in which he was associated with it.

The Duke left Weimar on June 22, , after having re- ceived a promise from Goethe to visit him in Koblenz. Later the Duke requested his presence at his head- quarters, and he left Weimar in the second week of Anigust, He visited Frankfurt oh the way, and on August 20 reached Mainz, where he received a summons to join the Duke in the Prussian camp be- fore Longwy.

On September 29 the army again re- treated. Goethe reached Trier on October 22 and arrived again in Weimar, Dec.

Goethe's experiences with the army gave to him a personal knowledge of military Operations and fur- nished him with several of the incidents described in the poem.

Under date of October 4, he wrote: "All at once, there was a loud knocking on the house door, which had been securely locked [he was billeted in a house in Sivry, and the rain was falling in torrents].

We gave no heed to it, for we had no desire to let in any more guests. At last relenting, we unlocked the door. An old vivan- diere Marketenderin pressed in, carry ing in her arms something wrapped in a cloth; at her heels fol- lowed a young woman, not bad looking, but pale and exhausted, scarcely able to keep on her feet.

In brief, energetic words, the old woman explained the Situ- ation, displaying a naked infant, of which the young woman had just been delivered on her flight.

Delayed by this event and maltreated by peasants, they had at last in the night reached our door. The mother had not been able to give her child any nourishment since it had drawn its first breath.

Thereupon, the old woman called loudly for flour, milk, a chafing dish, also linen for swaddling the infant. As she knew no French we had to translate her orders ; but her authori- tative manner and vehemence gave to her words plenty of pantomimic weight and impressiveness.

We could not execute her orders any too promptly, nor was what she obtained a bit too good for her. It was also worth the while to see with what promptness she set to work.

We were pushed back from the fire, the best place given to the Wöchnerin, and she herseif acted as if she had the house all to herseif.

In a trice the infant was bathed and swaddled and the porridge cooked; she fed the little creature, then the mother, scarcely thinking of herseif.

She then demanded a change of dress for the Wöchnerin, while the old dress might be drying. We watched her with astonishment ; she un- derstood the business of levying contributions requi- rieren.

Similarly, in describing the manners of the French in Sivry, Goethe wrote: "The night drew on; it was time for the children to go to bed.

Goethe stated that the time of the action of the poem was in the preceding August He, how- ever, groups various events which followed the out- break of the French Revolution in and the establishment of the French Republic, as these were related to German history.

The Directory in France — 9 had entered upon a brilliant and desperate struggle against the leading powers of Central Europe.

Napoleon had won in Italy some of his early and most brilliant victories. Two armies advanced against Germany, that of the Sambfe et Meuse under Jourdan, and that of the Rhine under Moreau.

Frankfurt, the city of Goethe's birth, was captured by the French, and his mother sought safety by flight to Offenbach. Jourdan, who had been baffled by the Archduke Karl, the leader of the Imperialists, in his attempt to enter Germany by the Valley of the Lahn, moved south and entered Bavaria, and advanced to the vicinity of Regensburg.

In the meantime the strong fortresses of Mainz and Ehrenbreitstein on the Rhine had been invested by the French.

Moreau in his onward march had reached Ingolstadt and threatened Munich, but was now forced to retreat. This celebrated general, pursued by two Austrian armies, succeeded in reaching the defiles of the Black Forest and, finally, in recrossing the Rhine in safety.

All the horrors of war marked the advance of the French armies into Germany. The soldiers of a nation which had been welcomed as friends not long before were now guilty of every excess and outrage.

The harvcst fields were troddcn down, churches plundered, and the inhabitants exposed to every indignity. In the meantime the states of Germany became divided in their counsels, and sought peace and security by mak- ing terms separately with France.

Prussia made a secret treaty with France on Aug. Häusser in his German history thus describes the rising of the peasants who followed the retreating armies of France: "Entire.

New outrages, which were perpetrated on the march from Würzburg to Bamberg in order to inspire terror, only increased the exasperation of the people.

For many days, over wide Stretches of country, the alarm bells sounded to rouse the peasants to the pursuit of the French.

After the defeat [of the French] at Würzburg, the movement extended toward the Spessart, and even as far as the district of Fulda the peasants rose to chastise their oppressors.

The correspondence of Goethe and Schiller at this time shows how vivid was the appre- hension of disaster associated with the approach of the French armies.

Thus, with the reality of war threatening his home, and an intense interest for the safety of his mother and his native city, Goethe began the composition of Hermann und Dorothea, The scene of the poem was laid in the vicinity of the Rhine, in some city which had been spared the approach of hostile armies, but which was situated so near as to offer refuge to exiles from across the river.

The place which Hermann und Dorothea sustains in Goethe's life is of importance in considering its history. The poet had completed in the summer of Wilhelm Meister, a novel which had occupied him at intervals for twenty-one years.

He was also closely associated with Schiller in the publication of the Musen- Almanach, The autobiography of Bene- venuto Cellini also attracted him, and he prepared a translation for Schiller's Haren, In his studies new subjects constantly occurred to him, and old plans arose in his mind demanding completion.

Turning aside for a few days from his translation, he wrote Alexis und Dora, Goethe had met with the subject of Hermann und Do- rothea in , probably while collecting material for his volume upon Unterhaltungen deutscher Ausgewan- derten, which he published in Schiller's Hören, — Be- sides Hero und Leander, I have in my mind an idyl of Citizen life, because I, too, must undertake something of that kind.

The plan of Hermann und Dorothea was con- ceived and developed in connection with current events; the execution was begun and completed during September, so that it could be read to friends.

The poem was written with ease and satisfaction, and it imparted these feelings. The subject and its execu- tion had so pervaded my being that I could never read the poem aloud without great emotion, and this effect has since for many years always been the same.

In this charming old city of the Saale much of Goethe's best work had been done. Here he was free from the distractions of court life, and could devote himself unreservedly to the charm of letters and to the studies which association with his friends in the university suggested.

The poem was begun on Sept. The work proceeded with amazing rapidity. Goethe did not write systematically, but worked upon different cantos as the theme attracted him.

Werke, 35, p. On September 19, he wrote the first half of the first canto; by October 18, he had revised the first four cantos and now sought to bring cantos five and six into more perfect form.

The poem had grown under his hand. At first he did not contemplate a poem of over fourteen hundred lines. On October 21, he read the poem, so far as it was completed, to the Duke Karl August.

In a letter to Körner of Oct. The whole is planned with amazing intelligence, and executed in the genuine epic tone. I have heard two-thirds of it, that is to say, four cantos, which are admirable.

It may possibly extend to twelve sheets Bogen. The idea of it he has, it is true, already carried about with him for several years, but the execution — which, as it were, took place under my eyes — has occurred with a lightness and rapidity incomprehensible to me, since he wrote over one hundred and fifty hexameters daily for nine days in succession Sept.

By November 15, the first four cantos had been care- fully revised and copied. A period of inactivity and an Indisposition to poetical production then arose.

On December 5, in a letter to his Swiss friend Meyer, he thus described his work: "I have been led by my idyl Alexis und Dora into the related field of epic poetry, since a subject which had been destined for a similar small poem has expanded to a greater, which will be presented entirely in epic form, and contain six cantos, and about 2, hexameters.

Two-thirds are already complete, and I hope after the new year to find the mood for what remains. I have sought to separate in the epic crucible the purely human element in the existence of a small German city from its slag, and to reflect at the same time as from a little mirror the great movements and-, changes in the theatre of the world.

The time of the action is approximately that of last August, and I did not perceive the hardihood of my undertaking until the greatest difficulty had been already oyatnounted.

An epic poem which will probably contain six cantos and as many as two thousand hexameters is now my aflfection and my care.

But in the case of a poem, the plan of which has been recognized as correct, and the execution of which depends only upon the proper moment, neither hope nor anxiety is in order, but faith.

On January 8, , he wrote in his diary that during a journey to Dessau and Leipzig the plan for the conclusion of the epic poem had been conceived, and that he had made a complete sketch of the same.

About the first of March he resumed work upon the last canto, then the sixth, but which now embraces the eight and the ninth.

On March 15, he announced the completion of the poem. In the period in which Goethe had rested from active work on the poem, he had devoted himself to a careful study of the theory of class- ical metres as contained in the work of Hermann upon the Metres of the Greek and Latin Poets , which had been recently published.

He also read Aristotle on the Art of Poetry and several of the dramas of Aeschylus. He had also studied Wolfs letters to Heyne upon Homer , and the Latin elegies of Cornelius Gallus, and also Propertius and Tibullus.

Much of his time was devoted to the study of classical literature and life. He read also Schlegers Greeks and Romans Vol.

During this period, the study of classical poetry and especially of classical meters, and how far they were adapted to modern verse, was a frequent subject of discussion with his friends, especially with Wilhelm von Humboldt, Böttiger, and others.

On June 8, his complete poem was sent to the publisher Vieweg in Berlin. The revision of the proof was un- dertaken by Wilhelm von Humboldt, who returned it to Goethe accompanied by a detailed discussion of the various lines and even of the choice of words in the poem.

Many of Humboldts suggestions were adopted. VOSS' LUISE. Idyllic poetry in Germany had acquired great vogue by the writings of the Swiss poet Gessner — His famous idyls published first in became in England and in France one ,of the most populär and widely-read German books.

Delicate in expression and revealing a genuine love of nature, but artificial in the extreme in the sentiments ascribed to shepherds and shepherdesses, these poems constituted but an in- cident in the development of German poetry.

It describes the life of a country pastor in North Germany, the celebration of the birth- day of his daughter in the forest, the visit of her betrothed, and their marriage on the evening before the day fixed for the wedding.

The pastor is piain, sincere, reverent; the mother, affectionate and do- mestic; the daughter natural, and frank in the ex- pression of her love.

Its descriptions, homely and detailed, charmed all classes, and it was recognized as a fresh revelation of genuine feeling in contrast with the artificial productions and the pictorial descriptions of the earlier school.

Wieland asserted that Voss could Claim rank with the greatest poets of all times, Schiller that Voss had enriched German literature by this idyl.

Goethe was equally prompt in recogniz- ing the merits of Voss. In the entire poem was issued by itself, and Goethe wrote to Voss: — "For what you have done anew on the Luise, I thank you, as if you had enriched and endowed one of my oldest friends.

I have read and repeated especially the third idyl so often, since is was published in the Merkur, that I have made it entirely my own, and now as it Stands complete, it is as national as it is unique in its charm, and the Ger- man nature is presented most advantageously in it.

Briefe, II. But his Luise can be no real heroic poem, because it lacks all continuity, all consistency, for, by a far too detailed painting of the smaller hors d'oeuvres, he has destroyed the epic eflfect.

While there are inequalities in the rendering, and occasionally foreign and uncouth terms and expressions, it still remains one of the most valuable reproductions of the Greek bard.

Herntann und Dorothea was not welcomed by many of the friends of Voss. Many regarded it as an at- tempt to rival Voss in a field which was distinctly his own, and to reproduce in classical form scenes from modern life.

Voss himself was sensitive at the success of Goethe's work. See also Ges. That Goethe could not compare with him in the writ- ing of hexameters was no fault of his, since that was not his business, nevertheless he regarded Goethe's latest hexameters as far more perfect.

That Voss in return finds pleasure in my poem only as a means of defending himself causes me great regret for his sake; for what is there in all our petty poetry if it does not animate us and make us receptive for each and all?

Klopstock, famous for bis Messias, and the wonder of a worshiping school of German writers, wrote un- favorably of the new poem.

Goethe and Schiller had recently piiblished the Xenien, which had aroused the enmity of a great host of mediocre bards, who sought to disparage the new production of one of the Weimar poets.

Schiller's estimate of Goethe's work and genius is worthy to be quoted in füll: — "We have not in the meantime been inactive, as you know, and least of all our friend Goethe , who in these last years hfets actually surpassed himself.

You have read bis epic poem Hermann und Dorothea , and you will admit that it is the culmination of his and all our modern art.

I have seen it arise, and have marveled as greatly at the manner of its origin as at the work itself. While the rest of us must weari- somely collect and test, in order to produce anything tolerable, he needs only to shake the tree lightly to cause the fairest fruits to fall ripe and heavy at his feet.

It is incredible with what ease he now garners the fruits of a well-applied life, and of an enduring culture, how significant and sure all his steps now are, and how a clearness respecting himself and the objects before him preserves bim from all vain effort and groping.

Meyer, Juli IDYLLIC AND EPIC POETRY. The subjects of these poems relate to country life, scenes among herdsmen, the rural divinities, love, Sports, the chase, each poem constituting a picture complete in itself of a Single theme.

These poems were true to nature and ex- pressed with great delicacy of feeling. Epic poetry is narrative poetry describing the events of the past, especially the heroic deeds of individuals and of nations.

It is, in its origin, one of the earliest forms of poetry. There are national epics, the records of the conflicts of a nation for existence, as embodied in the lives of its heroes, legendary, mythical and religious; there are also epics of cul- ture, religious epics describing the soul-struggles of an individual, or of the forces of light and darkness in this World or the next, as in Paradise Lost ; didactic and Comic epics, and animal epics, recording the con- tests of beasts and attributing human struggles, scheming, ambition, and deceit to the life of animals.

The prevailing verse in classical epics is the hexameter. The discussion whether Hermann und Dorothea is to be classified as an epic or an idyl has contributed little to our knowledge of the characteristics or essential features of either kind of poetry.

The Ger- mans include under the head of an epic historical narratives in prose and even romances.

In English, the poetic form is regarded as essential to the true epic. Goethe calls his poem both an idyl and an epic. He first called it an idyl, later he spoke of it generally, though not always, as an epic poem.

THE METRICAL FORM, a. Hexameter Verse. The earliest writers of Hexameters both in English and German sought to reproduce classical forms not only by employing syllables that were long by nature, but also those that were long by position as preceding two consonants.

Such artificial verse is foreign to the spirit of modern poetry, and its production is usually a mere academic exercise. The ear cannot detect the force of syllables long only by position, and these, therefore, cannot form an element in modern verse.

The work of Opitz, Buch von der deutschen Poet er ey had recognized the true nature of modern poetry, and he had established the fact that modern verse was not based upon quantity, but upon accent, that the rhythmic movement of verse depends upon the uniform recurrence of certain accented syllables.

Attempts to write Hexameters in German appeared in the literature from the earliest in to tHe time of Gottsched, the great dictator of tHe Leipzig school.

The complete volume was not issued until , when he published his address to the Redeemer, expressing his gratitude for the successful completion of his work.

Klopstock introduced a new era in Ger- man poetry. A lyric movement, proceeding from England and influenced by Macpherson's Ossian, awakened a new enthusiasm for the historical past of Germany, and Klopstock's trilogy of Hermanns- schlacht , Hermann und die Fürsten , and Hermanns Tod in , written in prose, though interspersed with bardic songs and choruses, inspired the German youth to similar attempts to reproduce scenes of the heroic past.

Goethe apparently used the hexameter first in his poem the Physio gnomische Reisen , in Antiker Form sich nähernd , and later in Reinecke Fuchs Goethe regarded the passion of his time for mere rhythm without poetry as a disease.

März Every syllable might be considered with reference to duration of tone quantity , strength of tone stress or intonation , and elevation of tone accentuation or pitch.

In every word of more than one syllable, there is a chief accent ictus , and there may be subordinate accented syllables. Every sen- tence has a main sentence- accent, to which the word-accents are subordinate.

The verse was divided into two rhythmical sentences or movements of three measures each by a pause called the caesura. The verse accent coincides usually with the natural accent of the word.

Juni When in English a special stress is laid upon a long syllable, the adjacent syllables are naturally subordi- nated, even though long.

Many words in themselves long, or receiving a certain em- phasis in the sentence, were used as short by Goethe; and conversely, the definite article, prepositions, and insignificant words were occasionally accented in ac- cordance with the demands of the verse.

In certain Compound nouns the last component receives an ac- cent, but slightly inferior to the first; Goethe often treated these as short.

Goethe uses the following in- dependent words as short: finb, I. Goethe employs the caesura very skilfully to give variety to his verse.

It often coincides with some grammatical or rhetorical division or pause. It sometimes falls at the end of a simple sentence I.

SBerfe II. But if we except certain lines, the poem is so natural in the movement of its verse that the form suggests nothing stränge or unusual.

Longfellow's Evangeline, which in subject and form has much in common with Goethe's poem, is uni- versally read and enjoyed. Longfellow's success gainsays the playful depreciation of his own effort in bis note: "The motions of the English Muse in the hexameter are not unlike those of a prisoner dancing to the music of bis own chains.

Some of Mr. Longfellow's friends were doubtful about the measure, but Mr. Longfellow wrote : "To me it seems the only one for such a poem.

Holmes wrote : "Of the longer poems of our chief singer, I should not hesitate to select Evangeline as the masterpiece, and I think the general verdict of opinion would confirm my choice.

The German model which it follows in its measure and the character of its Story was itself suggested by an earlier idyl.

If Dorothea was the mother of Evangeline, Luise was the mother of Dorothea. And what a beautiful creation is the Acadian maiden!

From the first line of the poem, from its first words, we read as we float down a broad and placid river, murmuring softly against its banks, heaven over it, and the glory of unspoiled wil- derness all around, — This is the forest primeval.

Imagine for one moment a story like this minced into octosyllablics. The poet knows better than his critics the length of step which best befits his muse.

Long- fellow in the use of hexameter verse. Classical and German Hexameters. The movement of the verse is affected by the Pro- portion of dactyls and trochees, by their positiön, and by changes in their arrangement.

As the verse begins with a trochee, a dactyl usually follows for variety in the second foot in the proportion of 80 to In the third foot the proportion is as 45 to 55, and in the fourth as 42 to In the third and fourth feet a trochee is more common.

In the fifth foot the dactyl is employed and in the sixth the trochee. The verse of Hermann und Dorothea differs noticeably from Gbethe's earlier hexameters in Reinike Fuchs by the increased use of the trochee in the third foot.

Gk ethe is distinguished from all other German poets by his fondness for a trochee in the first foot of his hexameters.

In this respect he is more like the Latin poets, especially Virgil, than Homer. If we use t to indicate a trochee or spondee, as the case may be and d a dactyl, Goethe's favorite form of hexameter will be tdttdt, tddtdt, tdtddt, The trochee and dactyl alternate in the fourth and fifth feet.

The first half of the verse admits of greater variety than the second owing to the fixed character of the last two feet. The greatest possible change dtdtdt occurs in Voss' Odyssey in 11 per cent.

Four changes tdtdtt occurs rnost often in Her- mann und Dorothea, viz. The Proportion of feet of three syllables to those of two is: in Homer, ; Virgil, ; Klopstock in the Messias, 61 ; Voss in his Homer, 60 , in the Luise, ; Gk ethe in Reinike Fuchs, ; in Her- mann und Dorothea, 51 In Goethe's Reinike Fuchs the spondees trochces attain almost an equality with the dactyls, in Hermann und Dorothea they slightly preponderate, Goethe's verse in Hermann und Dorothea shows a uniform change from the first to the second foot, the trochee or the dactyl being seldom used in succession.

In the third and fourth feet the repetition of the same foot is more common in Homer and in Virgil than a change.

Klopstock and Voss prefer a variety of feet here. Goethe introduces a change of foot here first in Hermann und Dorothea, There is a slight pre- ponderance of trochees in the fourth foot in Klopstock as he favors trochees.

Schiller and Goethe, as well as Virgil and Horace, prefer a variety here. GOETHE'S ELEGY OF HERMANN UND DOROTHEA. In the closing days of November or in the first days of December, , Goethe wrote his Elegy, entitled Hermann und Dorothea.

It was a defense against the attacks which had been made upon him for the author- ship of the Roman Elegies and the Venetian Epigrams. It is of interest in connection with the idyl of the same name, as it announces the appearance of the latter poem, and proclaims it a poem of home life.

He dis- claims any ambition for loftier recognition as a poet, but is grateful for lesser fame. He will introduce his readers to their fellow-countrymen in their more quiet homes, where man dwells near to nature, and men grow to manhood in humane and sympathetic relations.

He pays a tribute to Wolf for his interpretation of Homer, and to Voss for his poem of Luise, to which he had been incalculably indebted.

As a poem narrat- ing the stormy times of the French Revolution, his idyl will unfold the sad pictures of that time. The experience of those days and the lessons of the Cen- tury now drawing near its close has taught them wis- dom.

Fast sorrows become illuminated in the light of the new dawn. Even though loss has attended them, men have learned to know one another and the nations have found a common bond.

But true joy is only to be found within, in the life of the soul. That I did not leave the classics behind me as themes for the schools, but that they accompanied me to Italy and became part of my life?

That I sought to see nature and art as they are? That no name, however great, deceived and no dogma re- stricted me?

His poems were füll of passion, having as a theme the inexhaustible social life of Rome. He was the author of fifteen books of epigrams, concise, keen and satirical but often coarse and servile in tone as well as in theme.

Of such errors as these the rabble accuses me, which sees within me only what is base, errors which thou, O Muse, hast cherished within me.

Indeed, even those who are better, the kindly disposed and upright, would have me different, but thou, O Muse of song, alone holdest sway over me.

Thou alone renewest my youth and wilt preserve it to the end. April In the evening, Böttiger, von Knebel, and the Scotch- man [James Macdonald].

The last five cantos read aloud. Wolf 's Prolegomena, April News of peace. The epic poem read before the reigning Duchess. May Revision of the poem.

Afternoon to Jena. Evening at Schiller's; con- tinuation of the conversation on Aristotle's Art of Poetry, and tragedy in general.

Wolfs Letters to Heyne. More careful consideration of the Supplices and reflection on a second part. To Schiller; his prologue [to Wallenstein] read aloud.

Evening much about Ariosto, Milton, etc. The Elegies of Cornelius Gallus, also something of Propertius and TibuUus read.

Afternoon, the idyl read with Fräulein von Imhof. On the last canto. The same copied. June 7. Humboldt's Suggestion for the poem. Cloae of the epic poem.

Letters to Humboldt and Vieweg [the publisher]. June 8. The package to Vieweg closed. On Goethe's journey to Switzerland, he stopped in Stutt- gart.

His diary contains for : September 5. Evening at Raff's. Hermann und Dorothea read aloud. Goethe received the first printed copy of the Taschenbuch XXX INTRODÜCTION.

Brief extracts from bis correspondence with Schiller ülus- träte more fuUy the progress of the work. All four together will contain about 1, hexameters, so that with the last two cantos the poem may possibly reach 2, After finishing bis poem thus far, the poet, as was often the case in bis writings, stopped bis progress, and began a careful revision of what he had already written.

You may at all events find there the little town of your Hermann ; an apothecary, and a green house with stucco- work are also probably there.

He was still engaged upon the fourth, and hoped soon to satisfjr himself regarding it. Goethe wrote to Knebel; "I must for the present eoncentrate myself, until my last canto has crept from its chrysalis State and acquired wings ; then I hope, if God will, to live for a time as a free man once more.

The Muses apparently do not despise the weak physical condition in which I have been placed by my malady ; perhaps it is even favorable to their influence ; we shall see in a few days.

The entire action was based so directly on simple country life ; and this narrow limitation as I conceive of it, could only be expressed in complete poetic form by the idyl.

In two days raore I shall have raised the treasure, and when it is once above ground, the polisbing will conie of itself.

It is noteworthy how tbe poem towarda the end inclines to its idyllio beginning. Two-thirds are already complete, and I hope after the new year to find the mood for what reraains.

The time of the action is approx- imately that of last August, and I did not perceive the hardi 1 Qoethe to Knebel, Marcbi As regards tbe poetical as well as tbe metrical cbaracter of tbe wbole, I bave had constantly before my eyes wbat bas been recently discussed in eon- nection witb tbe works of Voss, and bave sougbt to decide various contested points ; at least I cannot better express my conviction tban in tbis practical manner.

Tbe first will soon be written out, and present a very neat appearance witb tbeir double titles. On Monday, I sball again forward four, and come to Jena in order to end tbe last [canto].

Tbe peace [tbe Preliminary Peace of Leoben between Austria and France, of April 18] comes to my assistance, and my poem gains by it a purer unity.

My f riends here and in this vicinity are well satisfied with it, and it remains principally to be sbown wbetber it will like- wise stand tbe test in your sigbt ; f or tbe higbest tribunal before wbicb it can be jadged is that to which tbe painter of men brings bis compositions, and it will be tbe question wbetber you reeognize in tbe modern costume tbe trae, genuine buman proportions find members.

Tbe subjeet is extremely bappy, a subjeet wbicb one will perbaps not find a second time in bis life. Since in general tbe sub- jeets for true works of art are found more seldom tban is supposed : it is on tbis aecount tbat tbe aneients con- stantly move in a definite circle.

I bave taken an absolute f are well of all tbe rest of our good Ger- man literature. In almost every case eriticisms of a work are determined by a good or a bad disposition toward tbe autbor, and tbe grimace of partisansbip is more repugnant to me tban any otber form of caricature.

May tbe Nine, wbo bave bitberto sustained us, soon lend us tbeir furtber aid in tbe eonclusion of tbe epic. XXXV IV. Voss's Luise. There is mach of naturalness in the descriptions and succes- sive seenes, great truth of feeling, but no Imagination, no development or dramatic interest.

The pastor is piain and reverent, the mother domestic and affectionate, the daughter attractive and bappy in her love ; the other characters are hai'dly outlined, tbough some of the servants have traits which possess interest and constitute personality.

Voss wrote this idyl after Publishing bis translation of the Odys- sey, but before entering upon bis work on the Iliad or the Bucolics of Virgil.

Voss's Luise became immediately a favorite poem, and added to the reputation of the author. Its descriptions of country life in the north charmed all classes, and was feit as a fresh revelation of genuine feeling, in contrast with the artificial and pictorial descriptions of the earlier school.

Schiller said that the poet had enriched and ex- tended German literature, and Wieland in bis review, par- ticularly of the idyls, asserted that Voss could claim rank with the greatest poets of all times.

In June, , Voss visited Weimar, and was received xxxvi INTRODÜCTION. The coldness with which bis later translation of the Iliad had beeu received gave way before bis personal Interpretation, and a relationsbip of some cordiality witb Goetbe foUowed bis visit.

Voss by tbe epic treatment of the family of a country parson bas given an intelligent bint of wbere our epic belongs.

Only bis Luise can be no real heroic poem, because it lacks all continuity, all eonsistency ; for, by a far too extended painting of tbe smaller hors Vceu- vres, be bas destroyed tbe epic effect.

See also Ges. In Goethe's poem our interest is enchained at onee ; sympatby for suffering, wbatever its nature, eonstitutes a universal appeal to bumanity ; biit liere suffering is exalted by patriotism, and tbe fortunes of tbe exiles become a per- manent object to awaken interest.

Back of all Stands the migbty political revolution which disturbed all estab- lisbed institutions tbrougbout Europe, and attracted tbe attention of tbe wbole world.

Tbe pastor's re- ligion is based upon tbe spirit of love and bumanity, and he possesses a clear vision of the forces which influence and determine cbaracter.

Even tbe landlord is not tbe simple bost of a village inn ; he possesses aspiration, and is ambi- tious for the future of bis son. The mother rises by her intelligence and tact above tbe mere ideal of domesticity, but is faithful to tbe purest womanhood.

The cbaracters are distinct, tbe conversations natural. There is no effort to invest realistic details of house-keeping with poetic in- terest ; no straining for effect as thougb simple country folk were seeking to show their knowledge of tbe fasbionable World by stilted expressions.

But all the scenes are kept witbin tbe framework of a perfect picture, showing, as in miniature, in exquisite finish each form and action.

It was regarded as an attempt to rival Voss in the field in which be was unique ; namely, in tbe representation of modern lif e in classical form.

Voss bimself was not disposed to receive it favorably. Never- tbeless be regards your latest bexameters as far more perfect. I still re- call tbe pure entbusiasm witb wbicb I took up tbe Pastor of Grünau later tbe Luise , wben it was first publisbed in tbe Merkur, how often I read it aloud so tbat I still know a large part of it by beart, and I rejoiced greatly in it ; for this joy finally became fruitful in my case, and attracted me to the style of poetry wbicb produced Hermann, and who knows wbat eise may come out of it?

Tbat Voss in return finds pleasure in my poem only as a means of defending 1 Schiller to Goethe, Feb. Tbe recently publisbed Xenien of Goetbe and Scbil- 1er had aroused tbe enmity of tbe great bost of medioere bards, but tbe populär judgment was truer and enduring.

I bave Seen it arise, and bave marveled as greatly at tbe manner of its origin as at tbe work itself. Wbile tbe rest of US must wearisomely collect and test in order to produce any- thing tolerable, be needs only to sbake tbe tree ligbtly to cause tbe fairest fruits to fall ripe and beavy at bis feet.

It is incredible witb wbat ease be now garners tbe fruits of a well-applied life, and of an enduring culture, bow signifi- cant and sure all bis steps now are, and bow a clearness respecting bimself and tbe objects before bim preserves bim from all vain effort and groping.

Juli, The Text. The text of Hermann und Dorothea presents f ew difficul- ties, though the successive changes through which it has passed, so far as they can be traced, offer an interestiug study.

Until the publication, Goethe was unwearied in the re Vision of the verse. The changes in expression are com- paratively few, but the changes in form by slight but effec- tive transposition, or the Substitution of a different word, are very numerous.

The attempt to reproduce a foreign verse, and to test the capacity of the Gerraan language to embody modern thought in classical form, and yet be true to native feeling, was the problem which caused the author an amount of labor, and a study of tlie technique of verse, such as perhaps did not enter into any other of his poems.

The poem itself had attained a certain completeness in the first fervor of composition, and even after Goethe pronounced it ended March 15 , he was almost constantly occupied in its re Vision.

The criticism of his friends embraced both points. The poem was submitted to Schiller, Humboldt, A. Schlegel, Körner, Böttiger, and others associated with the Weimar circle.

The earliest form of the poem is preserved in a manuscript in the Goethe-Schiller Archives. This is not the original manuscript of the poet, but a copy by his secretary Geist.

In case of Variation, the manuscript presents the earlier and less perfect form. It likewise preseuts the ear- lier division of the poem into six cantos, beside which the later, in nine cantos, is indicated by emendations.

What gives the manuscript especial interest are the numerous cor- rections which it contains of various dates, in part from Goethe's own band, in part from Heinrich Voss, in con- nection with whom Goethe undertook in the year , a thorough re Vision of the poem, mainly with a view to metri- cal perfection.

It is doubtful whether Goethe ever intended to publish the poem in thls changed form. In any case, the work which had proceeded so far was finally abandoned, and was not employed for later editions ; it shows, how- ever, how earnestly and circumspectly the poet was occu- pied with bis work after its amazingly rapid composition.

Schreyer fixes the date of this manuscript as about March 23, Another tentative change was : — "Sah ich doch Strassen und Markt noch nie so verlassen und einsam.

His former interests having been thus revived, he en- trusted a revision of Hermann und Dorothea to the young Heinrich Voss, at that time a professor in the Gymnasium in Weimar in whose advancement Goethe was especially in- terested.

A eertain unjustifiable respect which the great poet often showed to the judgment of his works by others was manifested here. Riemer and I have likewise received our task in eonneetion with it.

Goethe has given me an interleaved copy of Hermann und Dorothea, I am to review the hexa- 1 Knebel to Goethe. You can readily conceive that this is to me botli an agreeable and instructive oc- cupation.

The six foUowing days I purpose to undertake it with all zeal. I notice 1 the quantity of the separate words, 2 the regulär structure of the separate hexameters, and finally 3 the connection of the hexameters with one another.

I frequently find six unex- ceptionable hexameters in succession, which, if I mistake not, recur with a monotonoiis effect ; I then reflect how thht is to be remedied without the diction suffering at the same time.

I write my suggestions upon them, and in certain passages I have already been so successful as to discover an improvement.

In the successive editions there are slight differences in orthog- raphy and in punctuation. One characteristic of the print- ing of the time was the frequent use of the comma.

Not only the parts of a simple sentence were separated, but phrases limiting the meaning of a noun or verb were distin- guished from the rest of the sentence.

Quotation marks were not used, and the exclamation point was more often employed in declarative and imperative sentences ; the omis- 1 An K. Solger, Archiv für Lit.

XL Voss to Goethe, July 31, Seutences connected by und and aber were also marked off by the comma.

Goethe himself was indifferent to orthography and punctuation, especially in bis early Ufe wben the laws of language were less fixed, and it was fashionable among the Kraftgenie to be lawless and defiant.

The principal readings in the first edition which differed f rom the Ausgabe letzter Hand, aside from mere orthographi- cal changes, were the foUowing : I.

The principal changes in thetext were made for the first revised edition of Goethe's complete works A. Minor metrical changes were made in the final edition 30 C.

The earliest writers of hexameters, both in English and German, sought to reproduce classical forms not only by em- ploying syllables that were long by nature, but also those that were long by position as preceding two consonants.

Such artificial verse is contrary to the spirit of modern poe- try, and the delight in it is purely a scholarly one.

Buch von der deutschen Poeterey , had recognized that modern poetry is not based upon quantity, bat upon accent, and that rhythm depends upon the more or less uniform recurrence of certain accented syllables.

Isolated attempts to write bexameters in German appear in the bistory of the literature, from tbe earliest, In , to tbe time of Gottsched.

I am convinced that, if Opitz bad left any examples of tbis kind, be would bave been frequently followed tberein without besitation.

His influence upon tbe language and poetic forms was very great ; be moved populär feeling, and thus his verse produced an abiding impression upon tbe intellectual life.

Johann Heinrich Voss was possibly incited directly by Klopstock to undertake tbe translation of Homer. Voss possessed a genuine insight into tbe spirit of classical 1 Page First edition.

His reverence caused him to accept them as our unapproaclied masters, and to seek to reproduce them falthfuUy.

He did not faney as did Klopstock that thelr verse eould be surpassed. Something of a ereative spirit Is necessary to a great translator.

New forms must be con- stituted to give expression to anelent thought and feeling, and these hitherto unuttered forms mugt be true to the pop- ulär language.

Voss possessed great enthusiasm, united with a mastery of poetic forms. Hls work appealed to the great public as well as to seholars, and the most varied in- telleets were influenced by him.

He sought in his translations to be traer to the demands of classical verse than Klopstock had been. Among the various translations of Homer which appeared from , Voss's translation is unquestionably the greatest, Later his subserviency to classical form was pushed so far that he became pedantic, and his theories of prosody mechanical ; but before that period came, between his translations of the Odyssey and Iliad, he turned aside to write his idyl of Lutse, the precursor of Goethe's Hermann und Dorothea.

In Reineke Fuchs he uttered his mood of playful satire on the J Hehn, V. Einiges über Goethes Vers G. The very license of his subjeet made his verse free and uneonstrained.

He said that he wrote it in order to exer- cise bimself in hexameters. During the period in which Goethe was engaged upon the poem, he was constantly oeeupied witli the study of the Greek and Latin poets, and with the theory of epie poetry and verse.

In the modern hexameter, quantity is subordinate, and a trochee takes the place of the spondee. The verse ac- cent properly coincides with the natural accent of the word.

When an unusual stress or forced accent is laid upon ob- scure syllables, the smoothness of the verse is impaired. The caesura in Hermann und Dorothea occurs usually after the accented syllable of the third or fourth foot mas- culine , or after the first unaccented syllable of the third foot feminine , and occasionally after the fourth foot, the "bucolic caesura;" subordinate caesuras occur, especially after the accented syllable of the second foot.

Goethe em- ploys the caesura very skilfuUy to give variety to his verse. It often coincides with some grammatical or rhetorical divi- sion or pause.

It soraetimes falls at the end of a simple sentence I. Many words in themselves long, or receiving a certain emphasis in the sentence, were used as short by Goethe ; and conversely, the definite article, prepositions, and insignificant words, were oecasionally ac- centied in accordanee with the demands of the verse.

In certain Compound nouns the last component receives an ac- cent, but slightly inferior to the first ; Goethe often treated these as short.

Goethe uses the following independent words as short : sind, I. Platen, whose verse is unsurpassed in perfection of finish, and who is unexcelled in his mastery of classical metres, found Goethe's verse in Hermann und Dorothea rugged : — Holpricht ist der Hexameter zwar ; doch wird das Gedicht stets Bleiben der Stolz Deutschlands, bleiben die Perle der Kunst.

Werke IL Longf ellow's suecess gainsays the playf ul depreciation of his own effort in his note : " The motions of the English Muse [in the hexameter] are not unlike those of a prisoner dancing to the music of his own chains.

SBirft bn mir aber öergeit n? Säuft bod ieber, bie? Später ftilrjten bie Saften nnb fielen näl er bem SBagen.

I 20 II. SBenig pdjteten tt ir. Q6 faf bie traurige 9? Slber beffer ift beffer. Sie Stttget. Slber, ad!

Cet ife. SSor bcm! Der IDeltbürger. Slber ber glüd tige! Oas Zeitalter. Dciner ift fic lüert; brum! Slber lagt mid aüein!

Danf öou alleu Srquidten. Denn atö SKutter, fürwahr, bebarf fie ber Jugenben al e, 78 VII. Unb fie fprangen mit i? Unb fo teitef er fie bie Dielen statten I inunter,!

HO 35a befal! W tx, ad! ChoL or Chi. D Düntzer. Goethe's Works Deutsche NatioDal-Litteratnr. Erl Düntzer.

ErläuteruDgeu zu den deutschen Klassikern. Dichtung und Wahrheit. F Freuch. G German. Qr Greek. High Gerinan. Ij Latin. Q Low German. E Middle English.

Q Middle German. Middle High German. L Mediaeval Latin. New High German. Old Hi'jh German. G Upper German. Goetlie's Works.

The Standard Weimar Edition. Werke H. Groethe's Works. The Hempel Edition. Goethe's elegy, Hermann and Dorothea, is usually published with bis other elegies in the first volume of his collected works.

It was written in the autumn of while he was engaged upon his epic of Her- mann and Dorothea. In the literature of the time in Germanj there was mach that was crude and provincial, with which egotism and jealousj are always associated.

Manj shafts of envions and malicious criticism had been directed against Goethe and Schiller; Goethe finally as an entertaining, thongh not harmless pastime, wrote a nomber of distichs satirizing keenly tlieir contemporaries.

Schiller, to whom these were sent, joined readily in the sport, and even thonght that a certain completeness should be given to the enterprise bj making it embrace a large nnmber of anthors and their works.

These Xenien, numbering more than four hundred, were published in Schiller's Musenalmanach for The witty attacks upon contemporaries called forth a mjriad of coarse and stinging retorts often remarkable only for bad verse and bad temper.

The warfare, thus entered upon, forms an interesting chapter in the literary history of the time. The elegy of Hermann und Dorothea was written in reply to the assaults of the Anti-Xenien.

He intended it for publication in the first number of the Hören for , but Schiller advised against it, lest it should revive again the storm of attacks called forth by the Xenien, For a history of the Xenien controversy see E.

Boas, Goethe und Schiller im Xenienkampf, 2 Thle. Stuttgart, , and E. See also Schiller and Goethe's Correspondence from Goethe's remote Suggestion of the Xenien in his letter of Sept.

Goethe intended that this elegy should be the beginning of a new book of elegies. Schiller, in acknowledging it, said : " The elegy produces a peculiarly deep and touching impression, which cannot fail to move auy reader who possesses a heart.

Its close relation to a definite existence gives it greater emphasis, and the lofty, beautiful repose blends delicately with the passionate coloring of the moment.

It is a new and com- forting experience to me that the poetic mind so quickly and so sac- cessfully overmasters all that is common in real life, and by a Single flight of its own frees itself from its fetters so that ordinary minds can only follow it in hopeless despair.

I am still at the elegy. Whoever possesses any affinity to you will feel in it yonr existence and your individuality brought near to him. The elegy was not published until , and only prefixed to the epic in the edition of Page 1, line 1.

That, you saidj was an offense. Goethe prefixed to the first edition of his Roman Elegies which were published in Schiller's Hören in , the motto from Ovid : " Nos Venerem tutam concessaque furta canemus, Inque meo nullum carmine crimen erit.

Proper3, Propertius, the greatest Latin elegiac poet, who lived from about 50 to 16 b. These were written after his return from Italy, mainly in and They were inspired by his remembrance of Rome, and by his domestic life after his return.

Schiller in his essay Über naive und sentimentaliscke Dichtung had called Goethe the German Propertius; and Jean Paul Richter had said, in bitterness and envy, that a Tyrtaeus a Greek poet of the seventh Century b.

In the Anti-Xenien, the name of the Latin poet Tibullus was applied to Goethe; Goethe and Schiller were also called the "German Martials.

The Venetian Epigrams were writteu in the manner of Martial. That I did not leave the classics behind me with my school dajs, but that they foUowed me to Italy and were cherished in my life.

Goethe was under classical influences ever after his visit to Rome. This line expresses Goethe's independence, in which he declines to follow blindly any leader, however great, or theory by whatever au- thority supported.

This unfortunate controversy produced more bitterness than any other experience of Goethe's life, and dimmed for a time his really brilliant discoveries in science.

Hatur unb Kunjl seem, however, to belong together, as they are often used by Goethe. In that case Nature is that primal, nnspoiled condition of humanity as it proceeded from creative power.

Reise, June 27, ; quoted by Cholevius. See Schiller's essay Über naive und sentimentalische Ditcktung. God is frequently represented as an artist in Mid- dle High German poetry, and a beautiful form was regarded as his work.

Violence would seem to be done to the classic spirit of the elegy by the introduction of any element not based upon Goethe's ex- perience of art as he came to know it in Italy, and with nature ex- pressed in it.

That I scomed the miserable mask ofhypocrisy. Two mottos were prefixed to the Venetian Epigrams, the first ELEGY. Homihem pagiua nostra sapit.

Marti AL Epigrams, X. Haec ego mecum Compressis agito labris : ubi quid datur oti, lUudo chartis. Hoc est mediocribus illis Ex vitüs unum.

See the Lesarten to the Epigramme, Werke I. An allusion to Herder and others who had been bis friends. Poetry had preserved the freshness of bis feeling, and given him still the hopefulness of youth.

Eine intellektuelle Visitenkarte ukraine-nachrichten. Schiller, to whom these were sent, joined readily in the sport, and even thonght that a certain completeness should be given to the enterprise bj making it embrace a Cycate Mamu≈õki nnmber of anthors and their works. The description which Goethe gives in Dichtung und Wahrheit, Buch X, of his Pussy Orgasmus meeting with Friederike Brion, the maiden of Alsace, reads like the original of this MeuSe QuäLen. There has been much discussion of the tragical motive in Wallenstein, and some very curious opinions have been expressed. Sic machen Slufbrud. See V. Gut, dass hierzulande die Bars schon so zeitig geöffnet haben, da spielen die Leute Perfect Girls.Eu früh Lotto oder sonstwas, keine Ahnung. Ich fahre zwar auch -gerne sogar- bei Regen, habe aber absolut keinen Bock, Comic Sex Video nass einzupacken. Crfler 3äger. In 17 27, Leopold Anton, Baron of Firmian, became Archbishop, — a gloomy, ascetic prelate, a pupil of the Jesuits. IL 7, 8, 9. Georg bestellt Hirschgulasch, ich esse nach Jahren mal wieder ein Jägerschnitzel, war lecker. Simon quälen die Skrupel, Ellen beim Professor als Ghostwriterin zu verraten. Doch Simon ist immer wieder für eine Überraschung gut Britta ärgert sich über​. Felicite Comtesse de Choiseul-Meuse. ihrem Schicksale, und war weit entfernt, durch verwundende Vorwürfe Novaron zu quälen, so febr. er sie auch. Wenn Sie Mäuse auf dem Dachboden entdecken, sollten Sie sofort die Lebendfalle sein, denn es gibt keinen Grund, Tiere zu quälen oder zu. harmjan >>plagen«,»quälen«, dazu harmida»Qual«usf. ; Hantes-Wiheries, s. daselbst auch Walinesheim; Wannehaye, Flurname, Kanton Etain, Meuse.

Dunne, heie Szenen gibt es MeuSe QuäLen. - Meistgelesen

Der Wirkungsbereich eines Mäuseschrecks für die Wohnung fällt geringer aus. Summarized in the Weimar Reife Frauen Spritzen of Goethes Werke, Bd. Note to VII. SluSlanb -es, -"er [unus. WHERE AM I EVEN FROM?

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